(also known as: abstraction, concretism, fallacy of misplaced concreteness, hypostatisation)

Description: When an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete, real event or physical entity -- when an idea is treated as if had a real existence.

Example #1:

It's time to grab my future by the balls.

Explanation: The future is an abstraction. It does not have testicles. If it did, you probably wouldn't want to grab them because your future might sue you for sexual misconduct.

Example #2:

If you are open to it, love will find you.

Explanation:  Love is an abstraction, not a little fat flying baby with a bow and arrow that searches for victims.  Cute sayings such as this one can serve as bad advice for people who would otherwise make an effort to find a romantic partner, but choose not to, believing that this "love entity" is busy searching for his or her ideal mate.

Exception: In most cases, even in the above examples, these are used as rhetorical devices. When the reification is deliberate and harmless, and not used as evidence to support a claim or conclusion, then it is not fallacious.

Mother Nature can be disturbingly unkind.

Variation: The pathetic fallacy is the treatment of inanimate objects as if they had human feelings, thought, or sensations.  Think of cursing at your computer when it does not give you the results you expect.

References: {apa}

reification | literature | (n.d.). Retrieved from


Questions about this fallacy? Ask our community!

Become a Logical Fallacy Master: Enroll in Dr. Bo's Mastering Logical Fallacies Online Course

This is a crash course, meant to catapult you into a world where you start to see things how they really are, not how you think they are. The focus of this course is on logical fallacies, which loosely defined, are simply errors in reasoning.

Significantly Improve the Way You Reason and Make Decisions

  • Learn how to recognize bad arguments
  • Be able to articulate why an argument is bad
  • Learn important details on over 100 of the most common logical fallacies
View the Course Website for Full Details and Introduction Video