(also known as: illicit negative, drawing a negative conclusion from affirmative premises, fallacy of negative premises)
This is our first fallacy in formal logic out of about a dozen presented in this book. Formal fallacies can be confusing and complex and are not as common in everyday situations, so please don’t feel lost when reading through the formal fallacies—do your best to understand them as I do my best to make them understandable.
Syllogism: an argument typically consisting of three parts: a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
Categorical Term: usually expressed grammatically as a noun or noun phrase, each categorical term designates a class of things.
Categorical Proposition: joins exactly two categorical terms and asserts that some relationship holds between the classes they designate.
Categorical Syllogism: an argument consisting of exactly three categorical propositions: a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion, in which there appears a total of exactly three categorical terms, each of which is used exactly twice.
Description: The conclusion of a standard form categorical syllogism is affirmative, but at least one of the premises is negative. Any valid forms of categorical syllogisms that assert a negative premise must have a negative conclusion.
Any form of categorical syllogism with an affirmative conclusion and at least one negative premise.
No people under the age of 66 are senior citizens.
No senior citizens are children.
Therefore, all people under the age of 66 are children.
Explanation: In this case, the conclusion is obviously counterfactual although both premises are true. Why? Because this is a categorical syllogism where we have one or more negative premises (i.e., “no people...” and “no senior citizens...”), and we are attempting to draw a positive (affirmative) conclusion (i.e., “all people...”).
No donkeys are fish.
Some asses are donkeys.
Therefore, some asses are fish.
Explanation: This is a categorical syllogism where we have a single negative premise (i.e., “no donkeys”), and we are attempting to draw a positive (affirmative) conclusion (i.e., “some asses”).
Logically Fallacious is one of the most comprehensive collections of logical fallacies with all original examples and easy to understand descriptions; perfect for educators, debaters, or anyone who wants to improve his or her reasoning skills.
Get the book, Logically Fallacious by Bo Bennett, PhD by selecting one of the following options:
Enroll in the Mastering Logical Fallacies Online Course. Over 10 hours of video and interactive learning. Go beyond the book!
Enroll in the Fallacy-A-Day Passive Course. Sit back and learn fallacies the easy way—in just a few minutes per day, via e-mail delivery.
Have a podcast or know someone who does? Putting on a conference? Dr. Bennett is available for interviews and public speaking events. Contact him directly here.